Uses mass spectrometry radioactive dating
When isotopes are to be designated specifically, the chemical symbol is expanded to identify the mass (for example, C is not stable.
As a result it is always undergoing natural radioactive decay while the abundances of the other isotopes are unchanged.
Subsequently the shroud was made available for scientific examination, first in 19 by a committee appointed by Cardinal Michele Pellegrino .
Even for the first investigation, there was a possibility of using radiocarbon dating to determine the age of the linen from which the shroud was woven.
Carbon-14 is most abundant in atmospheric carbon dioxide because it is constantly being produced by collisions between nitrogen atoms and cosmic rays at the upper limits of the atmosphere.
Gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) are two instrumental methods of analysis.
Please note that any compilation of Stone Age art is bound to be both selective and subject to revision as new archeological discoveries are made.
Thus this list of the earliest art by our ancestors like Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens sapiens - should be seen merely as a snapshot of an ongoing process of discovery.
Only recently (2012), we have seen the chronology of Paleolithic art and culture changed completely by Uranium/Thorium dating tests on the cave art of El Castillo and Altamira.
At present, a large variety of fossils, tools and artifacts are being studied by paleoanthropologists and other Stone Age scholars, in order to fix their date of origin.
The same applies to archeological sites, containing rock art like cupules, petroglyphs, pictographs and other prehistoric works.